Original Research

Occurrence of the specific long spike burst pattern in the ovine proximal gallbladder as an indication of myoelectric regional variability

Krzysztof W. Romański, Józef Nicpoń
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 85, No 1 | a1455 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v85i1.1455 | © 2018 Krzysztof W. Romański | This work is licensed under CC Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0
Submitted: 16 March 2017 | Published: 11 June 2018

About the author(s)

Krzysztof W. Romański, Centre for Experimental Diagnostics and Biomedical Innovations, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
Józef Nicpoń, Centre for Experimental Diagnostics and Biomedical Innovations, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland

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The myoelectrical activity of the ovine gallbladder has not been fully recognised. Five rams were fitted with six small intestinal and three gallbladder electrodes and a strain gauge force transducer was mounted near the gallbladder fundic electrode. In two series of successive experiments, the electromyographical and mechanical recordings were recorded over a period of 5–7 hours. The occurrence of the slow waves in the small bowel was regular, unlike those in the gallbladder. In the gallbladder infundibulum, the specific pattern, called the long spike burst pattern (LSBP), was observed. It comprised usually one or two parts of prolonged duration. The first part resembled the classical (short lasting) spike burst in the small bowel, and its amplitude was lower than that of the second part. The spike burst frequency of the second part was 2–3 times lower than that of the first part. During phase 1-like and phase 2a-like activities, the intensity of the gallbladder LSBP was reduced while enhanced after feeding. In fasted rams, the duration of a specific pattern, observed in the gallbladder infundibulum, was longer than in non-fasted animals and its amplitude was low. Similar events were recorded in the gallbladder corpus, but the specific pattern was shorter and irregular. In the gallbladder fundus, mostly irregular short spike bursts were recorded. It is concluded that in sheep, specific types of the long-lasting groups of spikes occur in the upper gallbladder areas exhibiting myoelectrical regional variability. The character of an LSBP depends on feeding conditions.


ram; gallbladder infundibulum; gallbladder corpus; gallbladder fundus; small intestine; myoelectrical activity; contractile activity; motility patterns


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