Original Research

Investigation of the acaricidal activity of the acetone and ethanol extracts of 12 South African plants against the adult ticks of Rhipicephalus turanicus

Gerda Fouche, Bellonah M. Sakong, Olubukola T. Adenubi, Jean Paul Dzoyem, Vinny Naidoo, Tlabo Leboho, Kevin W. Wellington, Jacobus N. Eloff
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 84, No 1 | a1523 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v84i1.1523 | © 2017 Gerda Fouche, Bellonah M. Sakong, Olubukola T. Adenubi, Jean Paul Dzoyem, Vinny Naidoo, Tlabo Leboho, Kevin W. Wellington, Jacobus N. Eloff | This work is licensed under CC Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0
Submitted: 11 August 2017 | Published: 23 November 2017

About the author(s)

Gerda Fouche, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Biosciences, Pretoria, South Africa
Bellonah M. Sakong, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Olubukola T. Adenubi, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Jean Paul Dzoyem, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Vinny Naidoo, Biomedical Research Center, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Tlabo Leboho, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Biosciences, Pretoria, South Africa
Kevin W. Wellington, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Biosciences, Pretoria, South Africa
Jacobus N. Eloff, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa


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Abstract

The acaricidal activity of acetone and ethanol extracts of 12 plant species was evaluated using the contact method on Rhipicephalus turanicus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks at an initial concentration of 20% (200 mg/mL). Eight of the 12 plants had mortality greater than 50% and the acetone extracts had better acaricidal activity than the ethanol extracts. The acetone extract of Calpurnia aurea (leaves and flowers) had the highest corrected mortality (CM) of 92.2% followed by Schkuhria pinnata (whole plant) with a CM of 88.9%, Ficus sycomorus (bark and stems) 86.7% and Senna italica subsp. arachoides (roots, leaves and fruits) 83.3%. Selected extracts were tested at five different concentrations using the adult immersion test. From dose–response assays, EC<sub>50</sub> values of 61.82 mg/mL, 115.21 mg/mL and 161.02 mg/mL were obtained for the acetone extracts of S. pinnata (whole plant), S. italica subsp. arachoides (roots, leaves and fruits) and C. aurea (leaves and flowers) respectively. The ethanol extract of Monsonia angustifolia (whole plant) had the highest CM of 97.8% followed by S. pinnata (whole plant) with a CM of 86.7%, C. aurea (leaves and flowers) 81.1% and Cleome gynandra (leaves) 77.8%. There is potential for the development of environmentally benign botanicals as natural acaricides against R. turanicus.

Keywords

Rhipicephalus turanicus; Acaricidal activity; Plant extracts; Acetone; Ethanol

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