Original Research

Using genetic and phenetic markers to assess population isolation within the southernmost tsetse fly belt in Africa

Chantel J. De Beer, Gert J. Venter, Marc J.B. Vreysen, Fernando C. Mulandane, Luis Neves, Sihle Mdluli, Otto Koekemoer
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 86, No 1 | a1768 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v86i1.1768 | © 2019 Chantel J. De Beer, Gert J. Venter, Marc J.B. Vreysen, Fernando C. Mulandane, Luis Neves, Sihle Mdluli, Otto Koekemoer | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 22 March 2019 | Published: 16 October 2019

About the author(s)

Chantel J. De Beer, Department of Epidemiology, Parasites and Vectors, Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort Veterinary Research (ARC-OVR), Pretoria, South Africa
Gert J. Venter, Department of Epidemiology, Parasites and Vectors, Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort Veterinary Research (ARC-OVR), Pretoria, South Africa; and, Department of Veterinary and Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Marc J.B. Vreysen, Insect Pest Control Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Seibersdorf, Austria
Fernando C. Mulandane, Biotechnology Centre, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique
Luis Neves, Department of Veterinary and Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; and, Biotechnology Centre, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique
Sihle Mdluli, Department of Veterinary Services, Epidemiology Unit, Mbabane, Eswatini
Otto Koekemoer, Department of Epidemiology, Parasites and Vectors, Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort Veterinary Research (ARC-OVR), Pretoria, South Africa; and, Department of Veterinary and Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa


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Abstract

The effective control of tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae), the biological vectors of trypanosome parasites that cause human African trypanosomosis and African animal trypanosomosis throughout sub-Saharan Africa, is crucial for the development of productive livestock systems. The degree of genetic isolation of the targeted populations, which indicate reinvasion potential from uncontrolled areas, will be critical to establish a control strategy. Molecular and morphometrics markers were used to assess the degree of genetic isolation between seemingly fragmented populations of Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead present in South Africa. These populations were also compared with flies from adjacent areas in Mozambique and Eswatini. For the molecular markers, deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted, a r16S2 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed and the PCR product sequenced. Nine landmarks were used for the morphometrics study as defined by vein intersections in the right wings of female flies. Generalised Procrustes analyses and regression on centroid size were used to determine the Cartesian coordinates for comparison between populations. Both methods indicated an absence of significant barriers to gene flow between the G. brevipalpis and G. austeni populations of South Africa and southern Mozambique. Sustainable control can only be achieved if implemented following an area-wide management approach against the entire G. brevipalpis and G. austeni populations of South Africa and southern Mozambique. Limited gene flow detected between the G. austeni population from Eswatini and that of South Africa or Mozambique may imply that these two populations are in the proses of becoming isolated.

Keywords

Glossina brevipalpis; Glossina austeni; geometric morphometrics; mitochondrial DNA; veterinary entomology

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