Original Research

A questionnaire survey of poultry layer farmers in Khartoum State, Sudan, to study their antimicrobial awareness and usage patterns

Mohamed M. Sirdar, Jackie Picard, Shahn Bisschop, Bruce Gummow
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 79, No 1 | a361 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v79i1.361 | © 2012 Mohamed M. Sirdar, Jackie Picard, Shahn Bisschop, Bruce Gummow | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 14 July 2011 | Published: 21 May 2012

About the author(s)

Mohamed M. Sirdar, Agriculture and Animal Production Project, Poultry Section, National Cooperative Corporation, Khartoum, Sudan
Jackie Picard, Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Shahn Bisschop, Department of Production Animal Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Bruce Gummow, Department of Production Animal Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa

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An initial census of layer farms in Khartoum State, Sudan, was carried out in late 2007 and early 2008 and found that there were 252 layer farms with a total population of 2 221 800 birds. This paper reports the findings of the census. Based on this information, a structured questionnaire survey of 92 farms was then conducted in the state in April 2008 to collect data on antibiotic usage, demographic data and public health awareness. Ninety-eight per cent of participating farms comprised open-sided houses. It was found that 49% of the farms surveyed were on antibiotic treatment when the survey was conducted, whilst 59% of the farms had used antibiotics within the last 3 months. The study found that farmers and producers had a lack of knowledge about antimicrobial residues, their withdrawal periods and the risk posed by the consumption of these residues. The study also concluded that traditional farming systems in Sudan relied heavily on antimicrobial medication to control disease and almost half of the farms surveyed were treating their flocks with antimicrobials. In addition to this, there was a lack of disease control programmes which probably resulted in a massive use of antibiotics to control endemic diseases. This was further compounded by the absence of governmental supervision and control on the use of drugs.


antimicrobial; demographics; eggs; farmer perceptions; residues; Sudan; survey; use


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