Original Research

Feline panleukopaenia virus in captive non-domestic felids in South Africa

Emily P. Lane, Helene Brettschneider, Peter Caldwell, Almero Oosthuizen, Desiré L. Dalton, Liza du Plessis, Johan Steyl, Antoinette Kotze
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 83, No 1 | a1099 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v83i1.1099 | © 2016 Emily P. Lane, Helene Brettschneider, Peter Caldwell, Almero Oosthuizen, Desiré L. Dalton, Liza du Plessis, Johan Steyl, Antoinette Kotze | This work is licensed under CC Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0
Submitted: 21 October 2015 | Published: 09 June 2016

About the author(s)

Emily P. Lane, Department of Research and Scientific Services, National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, South Africa
Helene Brettschneider, Department of Research and Scientific Services, National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, South Africa
Peter Caldwell, Old Chapel Veterinary Clinic, Pretoria, South Africa
Almero Oosthuizen, Department of Research and Scientific Services, National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, South Africa
Desiré L. Dalton, Department of Research and Scientific Services, National Zoological Gardens of South Africa; Department of Genetics, University of the Free State, South Africa
Liza du Plessis, IDEXX Laboratories (Pty) Ltd., Onderstepoort, South Africa
Johan Steyl, Department of Paraclinical Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Antoinette Kotze, Department of Research and Scientific Services, National Zoological Gardens of South Africa; Department of Genetics, University of the Free State, South Africa


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Abstract

An outbreak of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) infection was diagnosed by pathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in vaccinated captive-bred subadult cheetahs in South Africa. Subsequent to this disease outbreak, 12 cases of FPLV diagnosed on histology were confirmed by PCR in captive African black-footed cat, caracal, cheetah, lion, ocelot and serval. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral capsid protein gene on PCR-positive samples, vaccine and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) reference strains identified a previously unknown strain of FPLV, present since at least 2006, that differs from both the inactivated and the modified live vaccine strains. A previously described South African strain from domestic cats and cheetahs was identified in a serval. Surveys of FPLV strains in South African felids are needed to determine the geographical and host species distribution of this virus. Since non-domestic species may be reservoirs of parvoviruses, and since these viruses readily change host specificity, the risks of FPLV transmission between captive-bred and free-ranging carnivores and domestic cats and dogs warrant further research.

Keywords: feline panleukopaenia; parvovirus; felid; cheetah; vaccination


Keywords

feline panleukopaenia; parvovirus; felid; cheetah; vaccination

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