Research Communication

Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) population in Algeria

Mohammed H. Benaissa, Samir Ansel, Abdallah Mohamed-Cherif, Karima Benfodil, Djamel Khelef, Curtis R. Youngs, Rachid Kaidi, Khatima Ait-Oudhia
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 84, No 1 | a1461 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v84i1.1461 | © 2017 Mohammed H. Benaissa, Samir Ansel, Abdallah Mohamed-Cherif, Karima Benfodil, Djamel Khelef, Curtis R. Youngs, Rachid Kaidi, Khatima Ait-Oudhia | This work is licensed under CC Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0
Submitted: 20 April 2017 | Published: 31 August 2017

About the author(s)

Mohammed H. Benaissa, Scientific and Technical Research Centre for Arid Areas (CRSTRA), Touggourt, Algeria
Samir Ansel, Higher National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria
Abdallah Mohamed-Cherif, Higher National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria
Karima Benfodil, Higher National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria
Djamel Khelef, Higher National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria
Curtis R. Youngs, Animal Science Department, Iowa State University, United States
Rachid Kaidi, Institute of Veterinary Sciences, LBRA, University of Blida, Algeria
Khatima Ait-Oudhia, Higher National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria


Share this article

Bookmark and Share

Abstract

Query (Q) fever is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the most prevalent natural reservoir. Data regarding Q fever infection in camels in Algeria are limited. Therefore, a survey to detect seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was conducted among healthy camel populations in a vast area in southeastern Algeria to determine distribution of the Q fever causative organism and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Between January and March 2016, blood samples were collected from 184 camels and serum samples were subsequently analysed using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit. At the time of blood collection, a questionnaire investigating 13 potential predisposing factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity was completed for every dromedary camel and herd. Results were analysed by a chi-square (χ2) test and multivariate logistic regression. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii at the animal level was 71.2% (95% CI: 65.2–78.3) and 85.3% (95% CI: 72.8–97.8) at the herd level. At the animal level, differences in seroprevalence were observed because of herd size, animal age, animal sex, presence of ticks and contact with other herds. A multivariable logistic regression model identified three main risk factors associated with individual seropositivity: (1) age class > 11 years (OR = 8.81, 95% CI: 2.55–30.41), (2) herd size > 50 head (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.01–19.59) and (3) infestation with ticks (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1–4.5). This study of seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection in camels in Algeria revealed a high seroprevalence of Q fever in camel populations in southeastern Algeria and provided strong evidence that Q fever represents an economic, public health and veterinary concern. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent the spread of C. burnetii and to reduce the risk of Q fever in farm animals and humans in this agro-ecologically and strategically important region of North Africa.

Keywords

Q fever; Coxiella burnetii; Seroprevalence; Risk Factors; Camel; Algeria

Metrics

Total abstract views: 1078
Total article views: 2306

 

Crossref Citations

1. Coxiella burnetii in Tunisian dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): Seroprevalence, associated risk factors and seasonal dynamics
Rachid Selmi, Aymen Mamlouk, Houcine Ben Yahia, Hedi Abdelaali, Mourad Ben Said, Khalil Sellami, Monia Daaloul-Jedidi, Mohamed Habib Jemli, Lilia Messadi
Acta Tropica  vol: 188  first page: 234  year: 2018  
doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.09.008