Original Research

Studies on effects of lactose on experimental Trypanosoma vivax infection in Zebu cattle. 1. Plasma kinetics of intravenously administered lactose at onset of infection and pathology

M. Y. Fatihu, S. Adamu, I. A. Umar, N. D.G. Ibrahim, L. O. Eduvie, K. A.N. Esievo
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 75, No 2 | a15 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v75i2.15 | © 2008 M. Y. Fatihu, S. Adamu, I. A. Umar, N. D.G. Ibrahim, L. O. Eduvie, K. A.N. Esievo | This work is licensed under CC Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0
Submitted: 31 August 2008 | Published: 31 August 2008

About the author(s)

M. Y. Fatihu, Departmenot f Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, Nigeria
S. Adamu, Departmenot f Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
I. A. Umar, Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
N. D.G. Ibrahim, Departmenot f Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
L. O. Eduvie, NationalAnimal Production Research Institute, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
K. A.N. Esievo, Departmenot f Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

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Abstract

Lactose in normal saline was administered intravenously to a group of Zebu cattle infected with Trypanosoma vivax to determine the bloodplasma kinetics at onset of an experimental infection and its ability to protect tissues against damage as part of preliminary studies to determine its suitability for use in the treatment of trypanosomosis. Significant (P <0.01) higher lactose concentrations were observed in the T. vivax-intecled bulls at 30 min and 1h (P< 0.05) post-infectio (p.i.) and by 4 h p.i. the plasma lactose remained above the level prior to infusion, after which it fell slightly below the preinfusion level in the uninfected group. Calculated pharmacokinetic parameters revealed delayed excretion of lactose in the T. vivax-intected group soon after infection. The total body clearance (C/B )was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. The biological half-life (t1/2), elimination rate constant (kel) and apparent volume of distribution (Vd) were relatively decreased (P > 0.05) as a result of the T. vivax infection. Retention of lactose in the plasma was attributed to decreased plasma clearance l.t is suggested that the presence of trypanosomes in circulation rather than organic lesions could have been responsible for the delay observed in the excretion of lactose.

At 12 weeks p.i., when the experiment was terminated, the group infected and given lactose infusion (despiteh igherp arasitaemia) had no gross or histopathological lesions in the brain, spleen, lymphnodes, heart, kidneys, liver and testes. However, the group infected but not infused with lactose were emaciated, had pale mucosae, watery blood, general muscular atrophy, serous atrophy of coronary fat and other adiposet issue, hepatomegalys, plenomegalys, wollen and oedematous lymph nodes, all of which are suggestive of trypanosomosis. Histopathological lesions included arrowing of Bowman's space and hypercellularity of glomerular tufts in the kidneys with the mean glomerula truft nucleairn dices (GTNs) in the group significantly higher (P <0.01)than the mean GTNs of the lactoseinfused and control bulls. Degenerative changes occurred in the myocardium, spleen, testes and epididymides. The tesicular and epididymal lesions are indicative of male reproductive dysfunction.


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