Original Research

Salmonellosis: Serotypes, prevalence and multi-drug resistant profiles of Salmonella enterica in selected poultry farms, Kwara State, North Central Nigeria

Akeem O. Ahmed, Moshood A. Raji, Paul H. Mamman, Clara N. Kwanashie, Ibrahim A. Raufu, Abdulfatai Aremu, Ganiu J. Akorede
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 86, No 1 | a1667 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v86i1.1667 | © 2019 Akeem O. Ahmed, Moshood A. Raji, Paul H. Mamman, Clara N. Kwanashie, Ibrahim A. Raufu, Abdulfatai Aremu, Ganiu J. Akorede | This work is licensed under CC Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0
Submitted: 26 June 2018 | Published: 30 May 2019

About the author(s)

Akeem O. Ahmed, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
Moshood A. Raji, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
Paul H. Mamman, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Clara N. Kwanashie, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Ibrahim A. Raufu, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
Abdulfatai Aremu, Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
Ganiu J. Akorede, Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria


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Abstract

Salmonellosis is a major threat facing the poultry industry globally. This study was conducted to investigate the level of Salmonella contaminations and determine the resistance pattern of isolates obtained from selected poultry farms in Kwara State, a transition state between southern and northern regions of Nigeria. A total of 900 samples were collected between January and August 2017, from the poultry environment, apparently including healthy and dead birds. Salmonella was isolated and identified using standard bacteriological methods. All presumptive Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using 11 different antimicrobials. A total of 58 (6.4%) Salmonella isolates were obtained, and the isolation rate was only statistically significant (p < 0.05) in live birds. The isolates comprised of 13 serovars. The three predominant serovars, Salmonella enterica ser. 6.7:d:- (29.0%), Salmonella Agama (28.0%) and Salmonella Typhimurium (16.0%), were isolated from all three sample types. Rare serovars like Salmonella Albany, Salmonella Colindale, Salmonella Istanbul, Salmonella Larochelle, Salmonella Nigeria and Salmonella Orion were also isolated in this study. A high frequency of resistance was generally observed with all the isolates exhibiting a total of (100%) resistance to ampicillin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime. This study documents the first predominant isolation of S. enterica ser. 6.7:d:- and S. Agama from chickens. It also documents the high frequency of fluoroquinolone and cephalosporins resistance of the isolates indicating the presence of selective pressure in the environment. Controls and targeted interventions against Salmonella and the frequent occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in chickens should be initiated to prevent the spread of this organism.

Keywords

Nigeria; antimicrobials; fluoroquinolone; Salmonella Agama; poultry environment; Kwara

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