Review Article

Peste des petits ruminants in Africa: Meta-analysis of the virus isolation in molecular epidemiology studies

Samuel E. Mantip, David Shamaki, Souabou Farougou
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 86, No 1 | a1677 | DOI: | © 2019 Samuel E. Mantip, David Shamaki, Souabou Farougou | This work is licensed under CC Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0
Submitted: 01 August 2018 | Published: 26 March 2019

About the author(s)

Samuel E. Mantip, Department of Animal Health and Production, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey Calavi, Benin; and, Viral Research Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria
David Shamaki, Viral Research Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria
Souabou Farougou, Department of Animal Health and Production, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey Calavi, Benin

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Peste des petits ruminant (PPR) is a highly contagious, infectious viral disease of small ruminant species which is caused by the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), the prototype member of the Morbillivirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Peste des petits ruminant was first described in West Africa, where it has probably been endemic in sheep and goats since the emergence of the rinderpest pandemic and was always misdiagnosed with rinderpest in sheep and goats. Since its discovery PPR has had a major impact on sheep and goat breeders in Africa and has therefore been a key focus of research at the veterinary research institutes and university faculties of veterinary medicine in Africa. Several key discoveries were made at these institutions, including the isolation and propagation of African PPR virus isolates, notable amongst which was the Nigerian PPRV 75/1 that was used in the scientific study to understand the taxonomy, molecular dynamics, lineage differentiation of PPRV and the development of vaccine seeds for immunisation against PPR. African sheep and goat breeds including camels and wild ruminants are frequently infected, manifesting clinical signs of the disease, whereas cattle and pigs are asymptomatic but can seroconvert for PPR. The immunisation of susceptible sheep and goats remains the most effective and practical control measure against PPR. To carry out PPR vaccination in tropical African countries with a very high temperature, a thermostable vaccine using the rinderpest lyophilisation method to the attenuated Nigeria 75/1 PPR vaccine strain has been developed, which will greatly facilitate the delivery of vaccination in the control, prevention and global eradication of PPR. Apart from vaccination, other important questions that will contribute towards the control and prevention of PPR need to be answered, for example, to identify the period when a susceptible naïve animal becomes infectious when in contact with an infected animal and when an infectious animal becomes contagious.


peste des petits ruminants virus; lineages; isolates; molecular; epidemiology; vaccine; sheep; goat


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