Original Research

Seroprevalence of infectious bronchitis virus and avian reovirus in free backyard chickens

Sonia C. Pinto, Jescka Aleixo, Kleidy Camela, Abel G. Chilundo, Custódio G. Bila
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 89, No 1 | a2042 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v89i1.2042 | © 2022 Sonia C. Pinto, Jescka Aleixo, Kleidy Camela, Abel G. Chilundo, Custódio G. Bila | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 03 June 2022 | Published: 11 November 2022

About the author(s)

Sonia C. Pinto, Department of Animal Health and Epidemiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique
Jescka Aleixo, Department of Animal Health and Epidemiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique
Kleidy Camela, Department of Animal Health and Epidemiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique
Abel G. Chilundo, Department of Animal Health and Epidemiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique
Custódio G. Bila, Department of Animal Health and Epidemiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique


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Abstract

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian reovirus (ARV) cause significant losses in the poultry industry throughout the world. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four villages in Manjacaze district, Southern Mozambique, to determine the seroprevalence of IBV and ARV. A total of 467 serum samples from adult unvaccinated backyard chickens were screened using commercial and competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay kits. Our results showed anti-IBV and anti-ARV antibodies in all surveyed households and villages. The overall seroprevalence was 89.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.2–97.4) and 95.7% (95% CI: 88.0–99.2) for IBV and ARV, respectively. The risk of becoming exposed to IBV was lower in Chidenguele village compared with the other three villages (p > 0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were observed for becoming exposed to ARV between villages (p < 0.05). The backyard chickens tested in this study had no previous history of vaccination, outbreaks or typical clinical signs of IB and AR diseases. Therefore, the presence of antibodies to IBV and ARV was considered clear evidence that the birds have been naturally exposed to those two infectious agents, and the infection was of subclinical type. It is concluded that IBV and ARV are widespread in backyard chickens in the studied area. These obtained data are essential for design and implementation of chicken health development programmes.

Contribution: The epidemiology of IBV and ARV of backyard chicken in Mozambique is unknown. This study determined the seroprevalence of IBV and ARV in backyard chicken health. The obtained data are essential for design and implementation of chicken health development programmes.


Keywords

infectious bronchitis virus; avian reovirus; prevalence; backyard chickens; Mozambique; Africa

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