Original Research

Ascofuranone antibiotic is a promising trypanocidal drug for nagana

Keisuke Suganuma, Kennedy M. Mochabo, Judith K. Chemuliti, Kiyoshi Kita, Noboru Inoue, Shin-ichiro Kawazu
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 91, No 1 | a2115 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v91i1.2115 | © 2024 Kennedy Miyoro Mochabo, Keisuke Suganuma, Judith Kusimba Chemuliti, Kiyoshi Kita, Noboru Inoue, Kawazu Shin-ichiro | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 31 March 2023 | Published: 08 February 2024

About the author(s)

Keisuke Suganuma, National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Japan
Kennedy M. Mochabo, Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology (VPHPT), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, Egerton University, Nakuru, Kenya
Judith K. Chemuliti, Biotechnology Research Institute (BIORI), Kenya Agricultural Research Organization (KALRO), Nairobi, Kenya
Kiyoshi Kita, Department of Host-Defense Biochemistry, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan
Noboru Inoue, National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Japan
Shin-ichiro Kawazu, National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Japan

Abstract

Trypanosomosis is a disease complex which affects both humans and animals in sub-Saharan Africa, transmitted by the tsetse fly and distributed within the tsetse belt of Africa. But some trypanosome species, for example, Trypanosoma brucei evansi, T. vivax, T. theileri and T. b. equiperdum are endemic outside the tsetse belt of Africa transmitted by biting flies, for example, Tabanus and Stomoxys, or venereal transmission, respectively. Trypanocidal drugs remain the principal method of animal trypanosomosis control in most African countries. However, there is a growing concern that their effectiveness may be severely curtailed by widespread drug resistance. A minimum number of six male cattle calves were recruited for the study. They were randomly grouped into two (T. vivax and T. congolense groups) of three calves each. One calf per group served as a control while two calves were treatment group. They were inoculated with 105 cells/mL parasites in phosphate buffered solution (PBS) in 2 mL. When parasitaemia reached 1 × 107.8 cells/mL trypanosomes per mL in calves, treatment was instituted with 20 mL (25 mg/kg in 100 kg calf) ascofuranone (AF) for treatment calves, while the control ones were administered a placebo (20 mL PBS) intramuscularly. This study revealed that T. vivax was successfully cleared by AF but the T. congolense group was not cleared effectively.

Contribution: There is an urgent need to develop new drugs which this study sought to address. It is suggested that the AF compound can be developed further to be a sanative drug for T. vivax in non-tsetse infested areas like South Americas.


Keywords

ascofuranone; trypanocide; Trypanosoma congolense; Trypanosoma vivax; antibiotic

Sustainable Development Goal

Goal 2: Zero hunger

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