Original Research

Molecular epidemiology of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from cattle in Ethiopia between 1979-2001

M. Sahle, E.H. Venter, R.M. Dwarka, W. Vosloo
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 71, No 2 | a275 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v71i2.275 | © 2004 M. Sahle, E.H. Venter, R.M. Dwarka, W. Vosloo | This work is licensed under CC Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0
Submitted: 08 November 2004 | Published: 08 November 2004

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M. Sahle,
E.H. Venter,
R.M. Dwarka,
W. Vosloo,

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Abstract

Partial 1D gene characterization was used to study phylogenetic relationships between 17 serotype O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses in Ethiopia as well as with other O-type isolates from Eritrea, Kenya, South and West Africa, the Middle East, Asia and South America. A homologous region of 495 bp corresponding to the C-terminus end of the 1D gene was used for phylogenetic analysis. This study described three lineages, viz. African/Middle East-Asia, Cathay and South American. Within lineage I, three topotypes were defined, viz. East and West Africa and the Middle East-Asia together with the South African isolate. The Ethiopian isolates clustered as part of topotype I, the East African topotype. Two clades (based on < 12% nucleotide difference) A and B were identified within the East African isolates, with clade A being further classified into three significant branches, A1 (80 % bootstrap support), A2 (89 % bootstrap support) and A3 (94 % bootstrap support). Clade B consisted of two Kenyan isolates. Within topotype I, the 17 Ethiopian isolates showed genetic heterogeneity between themselves with sequence differences ranging from 4.6-14 %. Lineage 2 and 3 could be equated to two significant topotypes, viz. Cathay and South America. Comparison of amino acid variability at the immunodominant sites between the vaccine strain (ETH/19/77) and other Ethiopian outbreak isolates revealed variations within these sites. These results encourage further work towards the reassessment of the type O vaccine strain currently being used in Ethiopia to provide protection against field variants of the virus.

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