Proceedings

Molecular survey for foot-and-mouth disease virus in livestock in Tanzania, 2008–2013

Raphael S. Sallu, Christopher J. Kasanga, Mkama Mathias, Mmeta Yongolo, Chanasa Mpelumbe-Ngeleja, Misheck Mulumba, Ezekia Ranga, Philemon Wambura, Mark Rweyemamu, Nick Knowles, Donald King
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 81, No 2 | a736 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v81i2.736 | © 2014 Raphael S. Sallu, Christopher J. Kasanga, Mkama Mathias, Mmeta Yongolo, Chanasa Mpelumbe-Ngeleja, Misheck Mulumba, Ezekia Ranga, Philemon Wambura, Mark Rweyemamu, Nick Knowles, Donald King | This work is licensed under CC Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0
Submitted: 06 December 2013 | Published: 23 April 2014

About the author(s)

Raphael S. Sallu, Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania
Christopher J. Kasanga, Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania, United Republic of
Mkama Mathias, Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania
Mmeta Yongolo, Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, United Republic of
Chanasa Mpelumbe-Ngeleja, Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, United Republic of
Misheck Mulumba, Southern African Development Community Secretariat, Gaborone, Botswana
Ezekia Ranga, Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, United Republic of
Philemon Wambura, Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania, United Republic of
Mark Rweyemamu, Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania, United Republic of
Nick Knowles, World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Institute for Animal Health, United Kingdom
Donald King, World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Institute for Animal Health, United Kingdom


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Abstract

Phylogeography data are of paramount importance in studying the molecular epidemiology dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). In this study, epithelial samples and oesophageal-pharyngeal fluids were collected from 361 convalescent animals (cattle and buffaloes) in the field throughout Tanzania between 2009 and 2013. The single plex real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay for rapid and accurate diagnosis of FMDV employing the Callahan 3DF-2, 3DF-R primers and Callahan 3DP-1 probe were used. Preparation of the samples was performed according to the OIE manual, with a Kenya O serotype obtained from the attenuated vaccine serving as a positive control and samples collected from healthy animals serving as true negatives. The results indicated that 53.49% of samples (n = 176) were positive for FMDV genome by qRT-PCR, with Ct values ranging from 14 to 32. In addition, molecular typing of the FMDV genome positive samples using serotype specific primers revealed the existence of several serotypes: serotype South Africa Territory 1 (SAT1) (34.25%, n = 60), serotype A (68.92%, n = 98), serotype O (59.20%, n = 98) and SAT2 (54.54%, n = 96). The virus protein 1 sequences analysis for 35 samples was performed and the collective results indicated: 54.28% serotype O, 25.71% serotype A, 14.28% serotype SAT1 and 2.85% serotype SAT2. Therefore in this study, both the phylogenetic trees and spatial distribution of serotypes elucidated the phylodynamics of multiple FMDV field strains in Tanzania and neighbouring countries.


Keywords

foot and mouth disease; phylogenetic; phylogeography; serotypes

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