Original Research

Diagnosis and genotyping of African swine fever viruses from 2015 outbreaks in Zambia

Jonas Thoromo, Edgar Simulundu, Herman M. Chambaro, Liywalii Mataa, Caesar H. Lubaba, Girja S. Pandey, Ayato Takada, Gerald Misinzo, Aaron S. Mweene
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 83, No 1 | a1095 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v83i1.1095 | © 2016 Jonas Thoromo, Edgar Simulundu, Herman M. Chambaro, Liywalii Mataa, Caesar H. Lubaba, Girja S. Pandey, Ayato Takada, Gerald Misinzo, Aaron S. Mweene | This work is licensed under CC Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0
Submitted: 15 October 2015 | Published: 29 April 2016

About the author(s)

Jonas Thoromo, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania, United Republic of
Edgar Simulundu, Department of Disease Control, The University of Zambia, Zambia
Herman M. Chambaro, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Lusaka, Zambia
Liywalii Mataa, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Lusaka, Zambia
Caesar H. Lubaba, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Lusaka, Zambia
Girja S. Pandey, Department of Disease Control, The University of Zambia, Zambia
Ayato Takada, Division of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Japan
Gerald Misinzo, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania, United Republic of
Aaron S. Mweene, Department of Disease Control, The University of Zambia, Zambia


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Abstract

In early 2015, a highly fatal haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs resembling African swine fever (ASF) occurred in North Western, Copperbelt, and Lusaka provinces of Zambia. Molecular diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction targeting specific amplification of p72 (B646L) gene of ASF virus (ASFV) was conducted. Fourteen out of 16 domestic pigs from the affected provinces were found to be positive for ASFV. Phylogenetic analyses based on part of the p72 and the complete p54 (E183L) genes revealed that all the ASFVs detected belonged to genotypes I and Id, respectively. Additionally, epidemiological data suggest that the same ASFV spread from Lusaka to other provinces possibly through uncontrolled and/or illegal pig movements. Although the origin of the ASFV that caused outbreaks in domestic pigs in Zambia could not be ascertained, it appears likely that the virus may have emerged from within the country or region, probably from a sylvatic cycle. It is recommended that surveillance of ASF, strict biosecurity, and quarantine measures be imposed in order to prevent further spread and emergence of new ASF outbreaks in Zambia.

Keywords: African swine fever; Asfarviridae; Molecular epidemiology; Zambia


Keywords

African swine fever; Asfarviridae; Molecular epidemiology; Zambia

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