Original Research

Salmonella contamination, serovars and antimicrobial resistance profiles of cattle slaughtered in South Africa

Evelyn Madoroba, Daniel Kapeta, Awoke K. Gelaw
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 83, No 1 | a1109 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v83i1.1109 | © 2016 Evelyn Madoroba, Daniel Kapeta, Awoke K. Gelaw | This work is licensed under CC Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0
Submitted: 02 November 2015 | Published: 26 May 2016

About the author(s)

Evelyn Madoroba, Bacteriology Section, Agricultural Research Council-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, South Africa; College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Florida Campus, South Africa
Daniel Kapeta, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Florida Campus, South Africa
Awoke K. Gelaw, Bacteriology Section, Agricultural Research Council-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, South Africa


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Abstract

Antimicrobial resistant Salmonella are among the leading causes of foodborne infections. Our aim was to determine Salmonella contamination during cattle slaughter in South African rural abattoirs (n = 23) and environmental samples. Furthermore, antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Salmonella isolates were determined. Samples of cattle faeces (n = 400), carcass sponges (n = 100), intestinal contents (n = 62), hides (n = 67), and water from the abattoirs (n = 75) were investigated for Salmonella species using microbiological techniques and species-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. In total 92 Salmonella species isolates were recovered. The Salmonella mean frequency of occurrence on hides, carcasses, and intestinal contents was 35.37% (n = 81). Eleven faecal samples (2.75%) tested positive for Salmonella. The predominant serovar was Salmonella Enteritidis. Diverse serovars that were identified on carcasses were not necessarily found on the hides and intestinal contents. The inconsistent occurrence of the diverse Salmonella serovars on hides, carcasses, and intestinal contents implies that in addition to carriage on hides and in intestinal contents, other external factors also play an important role regarding carcass contamination. The 92 Salmonella were serotyped and tested for susceptibility towards the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, kanamycin, and oxytetracycline using the disk diffusion method. Most Salmonella (n = 66; 71.7%) isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial with highest resistance observed towards oxytetracycline (51.90%), which highlights the need for strict hygiene during slaughter and prudent antimicrobial use during animal production. In conclusion, cattle slaughtered in South African rural abattoirs harbour diverse Salmonella serovars that are resistant to antimicrobials, which could be a public health risk. The findings should assist policymakers with improving implementation of hygienic slaughter of cattle in rural abattoirs, which is paramount from socioeconomic, public health, and epidemiological standpoints.

Keywords: Salmonella; Cattle; Rural abattoirs; slaughter; Multidrug resistance; Environmental samples


Keywords

Salmonella; Cattle; Rural abattoirs; slaughter; Multidrug resistance; Environmental samples

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