Original Research

Molecular diagnosis of acute and chronic infection of Trypanosoma evansi in experimental male and female mice

Tahani S. Behour, Shawky M. Aboelhadid, Wahid M. Mousa, Adel S. Amin, Saeed A. El-Ashram
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 86, No 1 | a1638 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v86i1.1638 | © 2019 Tahani S. Behour, Shawky M. Aboelhadid, Wahid M. Mousa, Adel S. Amin, Saeed A. El-Ashram | This work is licensed under CC Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0
Submitted: 03 April 2018 | Published: 26 August 2019

About the author(s)

Tahani S. Behour, Biotechnology Research Unit, Animal Reproduction Research Institute, Giza, Egypt
Shawky M. Aboelhadid, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt
Wahid M. Mousa, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt
Adel S. Amin, Biotechnology Research Unit, Animal Reproduction Research Institute, Giza, Egypt
Saeed A. El-Ashram, College of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, Guangdong Province, China; and, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr Elsheikh, Egypt


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Abstract

Trypanosoma evansi is enzootic in camels in Egypt, and water buffaloes act as a reservoir for camel infection. Molecular techniques have contributed towards understanding the epidemiology of T. evansi. Trypanosoma evansi was detected in acute and chronic stages of the disease in male and female mice by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two primers. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, two groups consisting of 26 female and 26 male mice received 104 trypanosome by I/P inoculation for each mouse. In experiment II, 42 female and 42 male mice were inoculated I/P with 102 trypanosome/mouse. In addition, five mice were kept as uninfected control for each group. Mice were monitored daily for parasitaemia level during the pre-patent period using the micro-haematocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT) and conventional PCR. The primer pairs, (Trypanosoma brucei) TBR1/2 and TeRoTat1.2 (T. evansi Rode Trypanozoon antigen type [RoTat] 1.2), detected the infection after 24 hours earlier than MHCT in both experiments. The course of infection that was detected by MHCT revealed three waves of parasitaemia in female mice and two waves in male mice in the chronic stage of infection. In addition, PCR was able to detect T. evansi in different organs in the chronic stage (i.e. disappearance of parasite from blood). Application of the two primer sets on blood samples from camels showed that all samples were positive by TBR1/2 primers and only 32 of 44 were positive by TeRoTat1.2 primers. Acutely and chronically Trypanosoma-infected mice were detected by PCR in blood and organs. TBR1/2 primers were more sensitive than TeRoTat1.2 primers in detecting Trypanosoma-infected mice, and more reliable in detecting field-infected camels and excluding carrier animals.

Keywords

Trypanosoma evansi; acute; chronic; mice; PCR; polymerase chain reaction; organs

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