Original Research

Cystic echinococcosis amongst small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia

Habtamu Assefa, Belay Mulate, Shahid Nazir, Alula Alemayehu
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Vol 82, No 1 | a949 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v82i1.949 | © 2015 Habtamu Assefa, Belay Mulate, Shahid Nazir, Alula Alemayehu | This work is licensed under CC Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0
Submitted: 25 February 2015 | Published: 21 August 2015

About the author(s)

Habtamu Assefa, School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollo University, Ethiopia
Belay Mulate, School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollo University, Ethiopia
Shahid Nazir, School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollo University, Ethiopia
Alula Alemayehu, School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollo University, Ethiopia


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Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in small ruminants and humans in Addis Ababa, central Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving systematic random sampling was conducted to estimate the prevalence of CE in 512 small ruminants (262 sheep and 250 goats) slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise between October 2011 and March 2012. Hydatid cysts were identified macroscopically during postmortem examination and their fertility and viability were determined. CE was observed in 21 (8.02%) sheep and 17 (6.80%) goats. In sheep 13 (4.96%) of the lungs, 10 (3.81%) livers and 1 (0.381%) heart were found to be infected with hydatid cysts. Involvement of lung and liver in goats was found to be 10 (4.0%) and 8 (3.2%) respectively, with no cysts recorded in the heart. Of the total of 77 and 47 cysts encountered in sheep and goats, 33 (42.85%) and 15 (31.91%) respectively were fertile. Viability of protoscoleces from fertile cysts in sheep (29 [87.87%]) was higher than in goats (6 [40.0%]). For humans, retrospective analysis covering five years of case reports at two major hospitals in Addis Ababa between January 2008 and December 2012 showed that of the total of 25 840 patients admitted for ultrasound examination, 27 CE cases were registered, a prevalence of 0.1% and mean annual incidence rate of approximately 0.18 cases per 100 000 population. Liver was the major organ affected in humans (81.5% in affected patients) followed by spleen (11.1%) and kidney (7.4%). Logistic regression analysis showed that prevalence of CE varied significantly in relation to host age in the small ruminants (OR = 3.93, P < 0.05) as well as in humans (95% CI, R = 4.8). This epidemiological study confirms the importance of CE in small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia, emphasising the need for integrated approaches to controlling this neglected preventable disease.

Keywords

Cystic hydatidosis ; Small ruminants ; Humans ; Ethiopia

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